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Ozone, CO2 & Acid Rain

     The figure below displays a breakdown of sources of CO2 Emissions in the U.S. in 2006. By far the largest source is fossil fuel combustion:

Source: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
(y-axis units are teragrams of CO2 equivalent)

Acid Rain Program


Basic Information SO2 Reductions and Allowance Trading NOx Reductions Laws and Regulations Guidance and Fact Sheets Program Forms Program Results

     The overall goal of the Acid Rain Program is to achieve significant environmental and public health benefits through reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) - the primary causes of acid rain. To achieve this goal at the lowest cost to society, the program employs both traditional and innovative, market-based approaches for controlling air pollution. In addition, energy efficiency and pollution prevention is increased.

Fossil Fuels and CO2

     Human-Related Sources and Sinks of Carbon Dioxide Fossil Fuel Combustion | Industrial Process and Products Uses | Carbon Sequestration | Geologic Sequestration

     A variety of human activities lead to the emission (sources) and removal (sinks) of carbon dioxide (CO2). The largest source of CO2 emissions globally is the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas in power plants, automobiles, industrial facilities and other sources.

     A number of specialized industrial production processes and product uses such as mineral production, metal production and petroleum-based products also contribute to CO2 emissions.

EPA links and voluntary programs:
Advanced Coal Technology Workgroup
Compliance Assistance Sector Notebooks
Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation Industry
Oil and Gas Extraction Industry
Petroleum Refining Industry
Electricity from Coal
Electricity from Oil
Electricity from Natural Gas
Fossil Fuel Combustion Waste
Profile of the Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation Industry
Voluntary Programs
Coal Bed Methane Outreach Program
Methane to Markets
Natural Gas STAR

A fog-bound Aleutian island Image ID: theb1395, NOAA's America's Coastlines Collection Location: Alaska Aleutian Islands Photo Date: Ca. 1980 Credit: NOAA Office of Coast Survey Category: Coastal Views/Fog/

Bayous, Swamps & Marshes

Mouth of Harris County Flood Control District (HCFCD) Ditch where ditch enters Greens Bayou. Photo courtesy of US FWS, taken by Tammy Ash on 1/30/2009.
Rivers, Lakes & Waterways
Blackfish Lake

Blackfish Lake
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Fields & Streams
Fields & Streams
Light Pollution
Light Pollution

City lighting 'boosts pollution' By Jonathan Amos Science correspondent, BBC News, San Francisco.
The research was conducted in Los Angeles but could apply to any bright city.
(A major medical issue.) Related Stories:
BBC News City air pollution 'shortens life'
BBC News Pollution 'hinders heart pacing'
BBC News Air pollution 'can thicken blood'

Sea Pollution
Land Pollution
Land Pollution

Land pollution in Victoria

Air Pollution
Air Pollution

Air Pollution: Threat to Human Heart | TopNews New Zealand

Energy Generation
Energy Generation

Energy Generation

New articles for Today in Energy will resume on January 4, 2012. For December 22-January 3, Today in Energy will feature some favorite stories run in 2011.
Bakken formation oil and gas drilling activity mirrors development in the Barnett Drilling and production activity in the Bakken shale play built up gradually and eventually led to rapid growth. North Dakota is now the Nation's fourth largest oil-producing State, due mainly to Bakken production gains. According to the State's Department of Mineral Resources, total North Dakota oil production averaged 445 thousand barrels per day (bbl/d) in August 2011, up from an average of 344 thousand bbl/d at the end of 2010.
Source: EIA, based on data from HPDI, LLC.


Databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases.
CTD - Comparative Toxicogenomics Database
CTD contains 5,579,298 toxicogenomic relationships.

Ganges River, India at the Tal Mahal

     The fecal-coliform readings in the holy city of Varanasi can be 47,000 times the accepted Indian level for human bathing along the great ghats. Fecal coliform is used as the measurement of human and animal waste in water. And yet millions bathe in Varanasi and elsewhere along the 2,525 kilometer waterway. They usually know nothing about the potential dangers they face from pollution.
Because nobody has told them!

Danube River Watch - IPCDR
International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River

Ecosystem Management in the Great Lakes Region
Can ecology and waterway transport coexist?

Outstanding United Kingdon (UK) Geography Program

Gulch, Colo., (Upper Arkansas River Watershed)

     The occurrence of toxic substances in surface and ground waters is a continued threat to human health and aquatic life. Contaminants from gasoline, sewage, pesticides, cleaning solvents, and trace metals are harmful to humans, fish and wildlife even in very low concentrations.

U.S.Toxic Substances Hydrology Program manages:
  • Intensive Site Investigations
  • Regional Investigations related to land uses.
  • Collection and analysis of data from all toxic sites.
Animal Species - All
Animal Species  All

Okefenokee Swamp  -  Georgia
He was the Okefenokee Swamp's most popular resident until he died in the summer of 2007. But now, Oscar the alligator will be immortalized in the swamp he called home for nearly a century. Bone by bone, the aged star has been brought back to life, thanks to Don Berryhill, who, along with Jim Oscar was estimated to be about 100 years old.
Vist our Life Forms page


The swash zone at Nanny Goat Beach. Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve.

Columbus Iselin Reef Restoration site- 1999 Overview of boulders at repair site "E" from the contractor's barge. Click here to see the most recent images from the restoration site.
Forests & Woodlands
Forests & Woodlands Woodlands

Dynamics of Utah-Juniper Woodlands in Wyoming
Woodlands dominated by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) have been expanding into grassland and steppe vegetation during the past century in central and southwestern Wyoming. This expansion has occurred during a period of intensive grazing and climate change, and is superimposed on a longer-term range expansion of the species that has been occurring for several thousand years. Juniper woodland expansion has important ecological consequences and management implications.

Mountains & Canyons
Deserts & Plains
Deserts & Plains

With one of the world's largest and most colorful concentrations of petrified wood, multi-hued badlands of the Painted Desert, historic structures, archeological sites, native grassland, and displays of over 200-million-year-old fossils, this is a surprising land of scenice wonders and fascinating science.

Land Preservation
Abandoned Mine

Midwestern Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Project
State of Indiana Indiana Dept. of Natural Resources (DNR)
Mid-Continent Regional Award and Peoples Choice Award
Prior to reclamation site conditions included exposed coal refuse, unreclaimed mine spoil, exposed high walls, old slurry ponds, ponded acid water adjacent to high walls, acid water seepage from old underground mines, and acid drainage into Midwestern Creek a tributary of the Patoka River.

Agricultural Water Management - Annual carbon and nitrogen loadings for a furrow-irrigated field. Soils are the largest C pool in the terrestrial environment, containing two to three times the carbon that is associated with the aboveground plant biomass (Entry et al., 2002). Soil management as a means to sequester C has been widely studied to reduce CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere with the goal to mitigate global warming effects.


Mangroves converted to aquaculture Ecuador.
Laws addressing the placement of aquaculture standards or water quality pollution minimization have greatly altered the shape of new aquaculture developments in many countries. Photograph by Takayuki Tsuji.